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Exodus , CHAPTER 1

Jacob’s Descendants in Egypt.

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These are the names of the sons of Israel who, accompanied by their households, entered into Egypt with Jacob:

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Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah;

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Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin;

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Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher.

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The total number of Jacob’s direct descendants was seventy.a Joseph was already in Egypt.

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Now Joseph and all his brothers and that whole generation died.

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But the Israelites were fruitful and prolific. They multiplied and became so very numerous that the land was filled with them.

The Oppression.

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Then a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph, rose to power in Egypt.

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He said to his people, “See! The Israelite people have multiplied and become more numerous than we are!

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Come, let us deal shrewdly with them to stop their increase; otherwise, in time of war they too may join our enemies to fight against us, and so leave the land.”

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Accordingly, they set supervisors over the Israelites to oppress them with forced labor.d Thus they had to build for Pharaoh the garrison cities of Pithom and Raamses.

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Yet the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread, so that the Egyptians began to loathe the Israelites.

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So the Egyptians reduced the Israelites to cruel slavery,

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making life bitter for them with hard labor, at mortar and brick and all kinds of field work?cruelly oppressed in all their labor.

Command to the Midwives.

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The king of Egypt told the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was called Shiphrah and the other Puah,

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“When you act as midwives for the Hebrew women, look on the birthstool: if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, she may live.”

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The midwives, however, feared God; they did not do as the king of Egypt had ordered them, but let the boys live.

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So the king of Egypt summoned the midwives and asked them, “Why have you done this, allowing the boys to live?”

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The midwives answered Pharaoh, “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women. They are robust and give birth before the midwife arrives.”

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Therefore God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied and grew very numerous.

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And because the midwives feared God, God built up families for them.

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Pharaoh then commanded all his people, “Throw into the Nile every boy that is born,e but you may let all the girls live.”